Mastering Climate Speak with EcoHedge

Ever mixed up your offsets with your insets or your scopes with your categories? 

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  • Activity-based data

    Emissions data is based on how many of a particular product or material a company has used and a corresponding emissions factor per functional (e.g. tCO2e/kg).

  • Adaptation

    The process of adjusting to new climate conditions, minimising harm and taking advantage of opportunities.

  • Baseline Year

    A reference year against which emissions reductions in the future are compared.

  • Carbon Assessment

    The process of measuring the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emitted by a reporting entity.

  • Carbon Benchmarking

    A way for a reporting entity. to understand their GHG emissions relative to their peers.

  • Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS)

    Technologies that enable the mitigation or removal of existing CO2 emissions from point sources such as power plants.

  • Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e)

    A common denominator used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases on the basis of their global-warming potential (GWP)

  • Carbon Intensity

    The number of grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) that it takes to make a unit of electricity. The lower the carbon intensity, the greener the electricity.

  • Carbon Market

    Trading systems in which carbon credits are sold and purchased.

  • Carbon Negative

    A term used to describe an entity that has a net result which removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than is emitted. This may be through CCUS or the purchasing of carbon offsets.

  • Carbon Offsets

    A token to represent the avoidance or removal of GHG emission, most likely measured in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e). They are issued by projects or entities that have registered activities which reduce or remove emissions, which issue these carbon offsets to sell.

  • Climate Positive

    A term that is often used interchangeably with Carbon Negative.

  • Decarbonisation

    All measures in which an entity reduces its reliance on CO2-packed fossil fuels through a switch to renewables and low-carbon solutions.

  • Direct Emissions

    Emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity.

  • Double Counting

    A situation where two parties claim the same carbon removal or emissions reduction.

  • Downstream Emissions

    Indirect emissions associated with the usage and disposing of a reporting entity’s product or service.

  • Embodied Carbon

    The CO2 emissions associated with the materials and construction process throughout the whole lifecycle of a building or piece of infrastructure.

  • Emissions Factor

    A coefficient that describes the rate at which a given activity or material releases GHGs into the atmosphere.

  • Environmental Social Governance (ESG) Reporting

    A report published by the reporting entity to disclose information covering its operations and risks in three domains: environmental stewardship, social responsibility and corporate governance.

  • Fugitive Gases (F-Gas)

    Man-made gases mainly used industrial applications. They are powerful GHGs that are often used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances.

  • GHG Protocol

    A global standardised framework to measure and manage GHG emissions.

  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

    An organisation which provides industry-specific guidance and best practices for entities to report their environmental impact.

  • Global Warming Potential (GWP)

    A metric developed to allow the comparisons of global warming impacts between different greenhouse gases. 

  • Greenhouse Gas

    Gases that absorb infrared radiation from the sun in the form of heat, causing the Earth’s temperature to rise, a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.

  • Greenwashing

    A marketing strategy that puts forward misleading or false information about the environmental impact of an entities’ products and operations among the public.

  • Indirect Emissions

    Emissions that are a result of an entity’s activities but with sources that are owned by other entities.

  • Net Zero

    When there is no more carbon emitted into the atmosphere than is removed. Emissions abatement, carbon removal and energy efficiency policies are all needed to help achieve net zero.

  • Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi)

    Emissions data is based on how many of a particular product or material a company has used and a corresponding emissions factor per functional (e.g. tCO2e/kg).

  • Scope 1

    Direct emissions from sources directly owned or controlled by an reporting entity.

  • Scope 2

    Indirect emissions originating from energy purchased.

  • Scope 3

    All indirect emissions that occur within the value chain of a company that have not already been included in scope 2. There are 15 categories of Scope 3 emissions currently recognised.

  • Streamlined Energy & Carbon Reporting (SECR)

    A piece of UK legislation enacted in 2019, where an estimated 11,900 and counting UK companies that meet the criteria must disclose their energy and carbon emissions yearly.

  • Spend-Based Methodology

    Emissions data based on the financial value of a purchased good or service and a corresponding emissions factor per currency-unit (e.g. tCO2e/£).

  • Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

    An organisation that provides industry-based standards that company can use when reporting on their environmental impact.

  • Taskforce Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)

    An organisation that provides a set of recommendations on climate-related risk reporting, consisting of governance, strategy, and risk management, alongside targets and metrics such as Scope 1, 2 & 3 GHG Emissions.

  • Upstream Emissions

    Indirect emissions that are associated with the production and manufacturing of the reporting entity’s products or services.

  • Value Chain

    The series of steps that constitute the full lifecycle of a product or service, anywhere from sourcing to disposal.